UT

UT Standard E317-11

UT Thickness Standard – E797-10

UT Ultrasonic Standard – E1001-11

UT Step Block

IMG_0531

 

Ultrasonic Key:

V = velocity

Sin = sine of angle

Cos = cosine of angle

F = frequency

D = diameter of the transducer

BS = beam spread

λ = lambda or wavelentgh

p = density of the material

Z = acoustic impedance

dB = decible

NF = near field

Snell’s Law:

Sin Θ1 / Sin Θ2 = V1 / V2 or Sin Θ2 = (Sin Θ1 * V2) / V1

Near Field:

NF = D2F / 4V or NF = D2 / 4λ

Beam’s Spread:

BS = K * (V/DF) Note: K = 1.22 for 0 or null point K = 0.7 for 6 dB down

Wave Length:

λ = V/F

Pipe Inspection 2Acoustic Impedance:

Z = pV

Coefficient of Reflection:

((Z1 – Z2)2 / (Z1 + Z2)2)1/2

Decibel Ratio:

dB difference = 20 log10 (amplitude1 / amplitude2)

Flaw Location Depth:

Depth = cosθ of the angle X the sound path

Flaw Location from the exit point (surface distance):

Surface = Sound path X Sinθ of the angle